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Manned flights are indicated in bold text. The Solar and Heliospheric Research Group. List of Solar System probes List of lunar probes List of space telescopes. List of heliophysics missions.

List of Explorers program missions. They concluded that the Sun had been undergoing global change that affected the overall heliosphere. The Earth is constantly bombarded with a stream of accelerated particles arriving not only from the Sun, video to audio converter filehippo but also from interstellar and galactic sources.

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Both incorporate electrostatic analyzers whose fan-shaped fields of view sweep out all pertinent look directions as the spacecraft spins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The charge state of energetic ions contains key information to unravel source temperatures, acceleration, fractionation and transport processes for these particle populations. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. While there has been great progress addressing these objectives, the changing conditions over the solar cycle present new opportunities.

Each of the two instruments are time-of-flight mass spectrometers and use electrostatic analysis followed by the time-of-flight and, as required, an energy measurement. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics.

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California Institute of Technology. Similarly, the Galaxy is neither uniform in space nor constant in time due to continuous stellar nucleosynthesis. The instrument achieves its large spatial coverage through five telescopes oriented at various angles to the spacecraft spin axis. The two triaxial sensors provide a balanced, fully redundant vector instrument and permit some enhanced assessment of the spacecraft's magnetic field.

The study of these energetic particles will contribute to our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system as well as the astrophysical processes involved. The nuclei detected in this energy interval are predominantly cosmic rays originating in our Galaxy. One remarkable recent discovery in heliospheric physics has been the ubiquitous presence of suprathermal particles with common spectral shape. Particle acceleration is ubiquitous in nature and understanding its nature is one of the fundamental problems of space plasma astrophysics.

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